Text Box: An annotated bibliography of published papers and other documents describing the important milestones in the history and use of artificial organs.
Text Box: Milestone Papers
Text Box: PROJECT BIONICS  Artificial Organs from Discovery to Clinical Use
Text Box: Artificial Kidney
Cardiopulmonary Bypass for Cardiac Surgery
Cardiac Valves and Intracardiac Prosthesis
Vascular Grafts
Cardiac Assist Devices
Cardiac Pacemakers and Defibrillators
Mechanical Ventilators
Artificial Lungs
Parenteral Nutrition/ Artificial Gut
Artificial Liver
Artificial Endocrine Organs
Artificial Joints
Artificial Sight and Hearing
Non-thrombogenic Surfaces
Artificial Organs and Society
Text Box: Purpose
The Milestone Papers will serve many purposes.  First and foremost, it will provide a useful, annotated bibliography on the history of artificial organs.  This will provide key information on past artificial organ developments for timelines, oral histories, historical articles, and other products of Project Bionics.  It will also be a valuable tool for scholars and scientists interested in the historical progression of artificial organ developments.  This bibliography will provide the basis for a collection of the actual papers for archival purposes or possibly re-publication.  

Sixteen categories of artificial organs are defined.  In each category three lists of milestone papers will be prepared: 

milestone papers describing the development of the artificial organ; 
milestone papers describing the clinical use of the artificial organ in clinical practice;
milestone documents describing the commercial development of the artificial organ (patents and regulatory documents).  

The final document will thus include forty-eight lists of milestone papers and documents, with brief annotation describing the importance of each publication.

In Phase I, the ASAIO Scholar and Project Bionics Work Group will work towards compiling and editing a complete annotated list for the purposes of publication.  

In Phase II, the ASAIO Scholar will compile reprints or copies of all the papers and documents on the lists, request appropriate copyright releases and assemble this entire archive for the National Library of Medicine, and for potential publication.  The final archive will be available in print and electronic format with editorial comments and synopses by Project Bionics and Milestones’ leaders.  
Text Box: An ASAIO History Project
at The Smithsonian
with the NLM